Braum Q&A Summary

Posted on at 3:38 AM by Prof. Fridays
Yesterday, several Rioters responsible for the gameplay, art & sound, and creative aspects of Braum, The Heart of the Freljord, took to the Community Beta to host a massive Q&A!
Continue reading for a summary of all things Braum in all his mustachioed glory!

Before we get started, brush up on what we already know about Braum:

Each section is split up by thread and thus category - Gameplay, Art & Sound, and finally Creative. The Rioters that participated in that particular thread are listed below the heading.


Answers authored by RiotWrekz, RiotRepertoir, and Griftrix.

Q. Do you think there is a chance he can go somewhere else on the map other than support?
Braum was designed to be mostly defensive and benefit a lot from having another champion in his lane. These things make him a much more natural fit in the support role. I believe it is unlikely he is successful in other lanes and would probably be a signal that something s not appropriately balanced." - RiotWrekz

Q. How would you best describe the difficulty of this champion?
"Braum can be surprisingly difficult to pick up for some players. Most of our recent champion releases have emphasized a very aggressive pattern, but Braum's most consistently successful laning pattern is probably more defensive than most.
Outside of laning, Braum players will become more successful and feel more powerful as they learn to start their passive on all nearby enemies without compromising their positioning, as well as by learning to manage the uptime on their E." - RiotRepertoir

Q. How viable do you think he will be in the current meta with Thresh, Leona and Morgana? Can his wall block things like Thresh Q and Leona E?
"Braum's Unbreakable causes him to reduce the damage from things that hit it but still take the CC. This means that Thresh Q still hooks him, same with Morgana Q. That said, Braum has a good matchup against Thresh and Leona because he tends to be strong against all-in and relatively weaker against poke match ups." - RiotWrekz

Q. Would I basically still be building him like a Leona? I mean Leona still gets her ward pack, then she can proceed to defensive items. I imagine it would be the same concept. Am I wrong here?
"The most effective build we have found is to get a sightstone then max cooldown reduction and defensive items. His recommended items should reflect what we have found to be effective on him." - RiotWrekz

Q. Will Braum's Q reset the autoattack timer?
"Nope. It's pretty much just a normal line skill shot with the added effect of a strong slow and applying the passive." - RiotRepertoir

Q. His shield blocks projectiles and put them on him, but what will happen if there's something like Sona ult? Does his shield serve the same purpose as the Yasuo wall and will block it and just he gets stunned or will your whole team still get stunned by it?
"Yes. For pass-through missiles like Sona ultimate, the spell will break on Braum's E shield, applying its effect to Braum (in Crescendo's case, damage and a stun) but no one behind him." - RiotRepertoir

Q. When you use Stand Behind Me on a champion with some kind of mobility skill (i.e Jax, Lee Sin, Malphite) would Braum follow through all the way with them? or will he stay in the place they were right before they used said gap closer?
"Braum will move to their location when he pressed his W. Essentially, it will act more like Leap Strike (Jax Q), less like Resonating Strike (Lee Sin Q2)" - RiotRepertoir

Q. I had been begging for such a champion, a "STAND BEHIND ME" protector such as Braum, but I had a few questions about his Kit:
1. Unbreakable blocks the damage of the first attack that hits it, does the effect still happen (e.g. Vel'Koz ult - does it still proc his passive?)?
2. Is unbreakable's "hit-box" wider than that of Braum himself?
3. Does Braum's ultimate cancel Unbreakable?

"Hey! Questions answered in order for you.
1. Yes, things that his Braum's Unbreakable still apply their effects (minus the damage) so Vel'koz still applies his passive.
2. Yes, it is important for the gameplay of blocking for your allies to come through in a way that is accessible.
3. No, you can cast all your spells with Unbreakable active.
4. PORO, i've been working on him for a long time and I'm very excited for him to be coming out. I hope people really enjoy our newest addition." - RiotWrekz

Q. I think we need to explore the Vel'Koz ult a little bit more, because Yasuo's Wind Wall for example doesn't stop Vel'Koz's ult because it's not a projectile with travel time. If Vel'Koz's ult is indeed stopped by Unbreakable, then that opens up the potential that things like Lux ult, or Arcanopulse are also blockable by Unbreakable. Is that indeed the case?
"Braum reduces the damage from all damage from a direction with Unbreakable. The laser abilities (Lux R, Velkoz R etc) that go through windwall still pass through unbreakable, he just reduces the damage from them." - RiotWrekz

Q. What do Braum's other teammates have to take into consideration when they see him on their team? How can they assist his kit to work most effectively?
"From playing lots of Braum and playing with lots of Braum over the last several months, the biggest things I have found to being successful in a team with Braum are utilizing his passive and his E.
You can turn a lot of fights around by standing your ground with Braum and basic attacking the enemy, as Braum's passive will result in a stun on the enemy after 4 total basic attacks.
Additionally, Unbreakable (E) will redirect damage targeted at allies to Braum, so even if you are low on health, working in tandem with Braum while his E is up will make you deceptively hard to kill." - RiotRepertoir

Q. From the PBE he seems very underwhelming. Almost like he would really only be well utilized against a poke or siege comp. Was this the idea or will he be able to defend against dive champs as well?
"This was actually my first impression as well, but after several plays on the champion, I began to find that he is actually very effective against many tanks and fighters.
He's not particularly strong against assassin-type champions with very fast in-out's (LeBlanc, Zed, late game Kassadin), but he performs quite well against melee champions that have to sit there and punch someone for 3+ seconds in order to be effective, since this amount of time is enough to get a stun proc from his passive" - RiotRepertoir

Q. Lately with all the aggressive supports, I was kind of surprised to see Braum's release. To me, he's reinforcing the new support meta (of getting up in the enemy's face). Was this intentional? Is this the direction that you're trying to go with the support role?
"I don't think Braum is so much a reaction to a particular meta as he is the identification of an opportunity to add a character type to LoL that we were pretty sorely lacking - an immovable object that protects you to the very end." - RiotRepertoir

Q. Is his intercept (Unbreakable) like Wind Wall or does he take damage?
"He takes reduced damage from all damaging attacks and abilities he blocks except for the first one, which has its damage reduced 100%" - RiotRepertoir

Q. I've heard talk of players that want to try Braum in the jungle. If viable, what kind of jungler do you think he would be and how would his kit compliment that particular jungling style?
"If his relatively slow clear speed didn't hold him back too much, Braum would probably actually be a pretty effective jungler. That said, damage junglers are pretty dominant right now, and he would fall into more the utility style of Nautilus or Maokai, so he's probably not something we'll see a lot of for some time." - RiotRepertoir

Q. "Gameplay - Damage

I notice the damage scaling on Braum’s abilities are very limited (i.e. no attack damage/ability power ratios on the basic abilities). Did typical scaling practices, like with an AP ratio on Q prove to be toxic in practice, or was this deemed a necessary trade-off for Braum’s strengths? Additionally, why even put a meager health ratio on Winter’s Bite, when the incentive to build health would already be there, and the damage gained from the ratio would be near-negligible anyway?

Development - Braum's Ultimate

What iterations of Braum’s ult were there? How did you land on the current Glacial Fissure? It seems like PQWE are pretty cohesive, but his ult kind of stands out (not necessarily in a bad way - it just seems a bit different in scope from the rest of his kit)." - Prof Fridays

"Damage: Regarding damage, our goal from the beginning was to make a true defender. As a result, we wanted him to have reasonable/competitive damage to have an active laning phase but then not be a damage threat during mid/late-game. He has extremely strong defensive and utility scaling through the amount of tankiness and CC he has. If he also did substantial amounts of damage then he would have quickly become a one-man dive machine. I didn't want to create incentives for the player to build AP because I feel it is necessary to build defensive items for him to be effective, so it felt natural to put a somewhat small health ratio on his Q because it gives his damage a bit of a boost over the course of the game. Finally, it makes people feel good for building tanky items! 
Development: Braum went through a lot of ultimates, primarily focused on disengage and making him better at peeling. One that stuck for a while was kind of a delayed chain knocback/knockup. They ended up not working on the character for a number of reasons, but the primary reason is that due to his primary CC ability being delayed (passive) having an ultimate that lacked versatility was quite punishing. Glacial Fissure came from wanting something that was a thematic fit for the character that also had substantial gameplay and versatility. I feel like Braum's ultimate is something that has a lot of play, a number of ways for you to optimize its use, and overall feels like a really great physical action!" - RiotWrekz

Q. Regarding his passive, I know that you can mark more than one champion at a time, however when you stun someone while another champion has a mark as well, does that champion's mark disappear?
"Nope, Braum is able to stack his passive on multiple enemies at once. Get punching!" - RiotWrekz
"Nope! I have found that an important part of playing Braum effectively is to start applying his passive to as many champions as possible as a fight breaks out, and a large part of this is because stunning one champion won't clear the passive event on other nearby enemies." - RiotRepertoir

Q. - To a greater extent than any other champion, Braum's kit needs nearby allies to function. Is this intended to be a tenet of future support design? Design-wise, how would you say this differs from champions like Blitz or Morg who need a nearby ally to make full use of their powerful lockdowns?
- Braum's kit seems very integrated except for his ult. What is the goal of his ult in his kit?
- What technical challenges did you face with Braum's shield that hadn't already been addressed when designing Yasuo's Wind Wall?
" - Braum does rely pretty heavily on allies to be fully effective, but this doesn't necessarily mean future supports will follow a similar pattern.
- The goal of the ultimate as I understand it is to primarily be one final effort at halting enemies from getting to whatever allies are standing behind Braum, hence the knockup and slowfield in a line in front of Braum.
- Quite a few changes to spells had to be made in order to interact properly with Braum's E. A couple notable instances of this include Vel'Koz E and Karma Q. These are both missiles that leave an effect on the ground, so between the positioning of Braum's shield and the location of the missile on destruction, Wrekz had to go through and carefully make sure that all these types of spells were acting as players would expect when interacting with Braum's E." - RiotRepertoir
"Good questions!
- This is a big question and the answer is likely to be sometimes yes sometimes no. It is a designer to designer thing. I felt like one of the things that makes a duo lane really unique is interactions with your lane partner and felt like I could create cooler interactions between you by baking them directly into his kit. This doesn't mean everyone will think the same way. Part of what keeps League fresh is that we all think about things differently and the champions in the game reflect the design beliefs of all of the different champion designers.
- The goal of Braum's ultimate is to allow you to slow a fight down and split up the enemy team. Due to the delay and travel time it is a stronger counter-engage than engage which is consistent with Braum's ideal positioning and defensive style of play. Finally, the goal was to emphasize how strong Braum is the big leaping/slamming motion of the ultimate, I believe it makes players feel really empowered and physically strong when they cast it.
- Wind Wall paved the way for a lot of things, but was really well prepared to destroy projectiles before they did anything and not particularly compatible with letting them hit you first. It was difficult to get all of his interactions with projectiles working for Unbreakable and also introduce the idea of directionality for damage (so that he can reduce damage from things that aren't projectiles)." - RiotWrekz
"[Regarding the last question] This is an excellent question, thank you for asking so that I feel included :).
Yasuo Wind Wall was a nice foundation for Unbreakable, but it was missing a few key components. The Wind Wall doesn't follow Yasuo, it had no way to NOT destroy a projectile, and it couldn't actually cast the spell of the projectile at a target. Braum's ability re-targets projectiles (think basic attacks that aren't skill shots) to hit him, and it needs to cast the spell on himself. In addition, the Wind Wall had no idea of the direction of projectiles, and Braum only wanted to block things from a certain angle. These are some of the technical differences between Wind Wall and Unbreakable." - Griftrix

Q. Why not make his W able to jump to friendly wards?
"The main functional purpose for Braum's W is to make sure he can get to an ally he is trying to protect. Being able to hope to friendly wards would run counter to this idea." - RiotRepertoir

Q. Why is Braum's ultimate considered a projectile? Yasuo's Wind Wall can completely negate it.
"It's considered a projectile because it acts like one in pretty much every way in that it starts from a point and travels outward in a line. Yasuo's Wind Wall can indeed negate it, but it can also negate Sona's Crescendo, Ezreal's Trueshot Barrage, Ashe's Enchanted Crystal Arrow, and many other incredibly powerful missiles in the game, so at the very least it's consistent :)" - RiotRepertoir

Q. I noticed it was said he works well with Ashe. Did you find this because of her additional CC, or was it more how she has poke? Would he still work well with the more aggressive ADC's, such as Lucian or even Tristana?
"He works well with Ashe and Caitlyn because of their range. Ashe is a particularly good partner because Braum has difficulty closing on enemies in lane phase. Ashe provides enough slow for him to get a couple of extra hits off on people, which tends to be enough to tip most trades in your favor.
With aggressive ADCs things can go really well if you are coordinating properly and diving at the same time, but if Braum burns Stand Behind Me on the way in he can struggle to get out without taking a lot of damage." - RiotWrekz

Q. What is your favorite special interaction between Braum and another champion?
"I really like his interaction with Vi/Jinx. Also, Braum has a couple of great lines that play when his shield blocks ultimate abilities from other champions. Nami and Ezreal are two, i'll leave the others for you to find!" - RiotWrekz

Q. - Does the technology to Braum's shield open the possibility of an ability that works in the opposite way, enhancing projectiles that pass through it in a certain way? Sort of like a more broadly useful Jayce gate? Or would that be too degenerate with projectiles like Ashe R, Morg Q, and Blitz Q that are balanced by being relatively avoidable?
- Outside of figuring out the way that E blocks projectiles, what were the most technically challenging parts of his kit?

" - To your first question, yes. While that sort of thing would have been possible without making Braum, it makes it easier as much of the work was done for Unbreakable. As far as whether that's a good idea for game balance and design, that's not my job and I have no idea.
 - For the next question, the E was a big part, especially for design and QA, but the next biggest I would have to guess to be the animations surrounding E, and all the devils in the details, such as attacking in multiple directions and moving after attacks. RiotLamz did a hell of a job staying on top of that stuff and making amazing animations that worked well for it." - Griftrix

Q. Can his E block a Lux ultimate?
"Abilities with no travel time (Lux R, Xerath Q, etc.) are not blocked" - RiotRepertoir

Q. Can Braum's shield block turret shots for a diving carry? It would be really neat to swoop in and intercept a turret shot for those carries that like to spend so much time under the enemy turrets.
"Braum's E will not block turret shots." - RiotRepertoir

Q. Does Braum's Shield reduce the duration of CC he blocks or just limit it to just him (like Lux's Q)? Also how mana efficient is he starting out?
"He does not reduce the duration of CC's applied to him, even on abilities blocked like Lux Q and Zyra E.
He's pretty mana efficient early on I'd say. Managing mana on Braum is a more secondary concern after defensive positioning and proper timing of his W and E." - RiotRepertoir

Q. Do you think he could even remotely have the potential to be a jungler as he could easily gank and stun well blocking damage for the other champions in lane because if seems like it would be a viable position.
"His ganks will probably be strong. His clear speed will probably be on the lower end. If that's something a team is willing to put up with, then he may be acceptable in the jungle." - RiotRepertoir

Q. Do you always make champions around mechanics, or do you sometimes make mechanics around champion concepts?
"It goes both ways for the most part. Whereas Braum was highly gameplay driven, we've had champions like Vel'Koz and Zac that started more on the concept end." - RiotRepertoir

Q. If Braum's Q scales with max health, is it more viable to get more health items, rather than armor/mr items?
"If you're playing to dominate your lane, my personal opinion is that you will probably gravitate more toward a champion like Leona. If you're playing to have a really strong teamfight presence and protect your teammates, Braum is incredibly powerful and satisfying." - RiotRepertoir
"Braum performs well against the current field of popular supports because of their combat patterns. He is strong against all-in lanes that try to 100-0 you because of Unbreakable, but comparatively weaker against poke/harass lanes. He does well against Thresh/Leona and i'm hoping to see people bust out some of the less common picks against him." - RiotWrekz

Q. Is it possible for Braum to go over walls with his Stand Behind Me? Also, whenever he uses that ability, does the person he's in front of control Braum?
"Yes he can dash over walls with Stand Behind Me.
I'm a bit confused with what you mean about the person in front controlling Braum, you never give up control of your character by using the ability. When you cast Stand Behind Me you will leap to a position on/near the target of the ability (depending on allied champions behind present)." - RiotWrekz
"You can indeed jump walls with Braum's W, but Braum never loses control of his character. Wrekz has done some great work with this ability so that Braum will tend to jump to the side of his ally closest to the nearest enemy so as to be in a better position to use his E and Q." - RiotRepertoir

Q. Does Braum use mana if the target attack/spell hits his E?
"Nope. The only cost he incurs is when he presses E." - RiotRepertoir

Q. Does Runaan's Hurricane proc Braum's passive?
"Yep, Hurricane procs on-hits like Blade of the Ruined King, so it will proc Braum's passive as well." - RiotRepertoir

Q. With building Braum is there any chance it could turn out to be like a Lulu or Orianna and just do a crazy amount of damage with a solo lane gold income? 
"He only has one damaging basic ability, so I doubt that potential is really there to deal crazy damage with his abilities. He may be able to have a presence in top lane as a tank though if his waveclear weakness doesn't cripple him too much." - RiotRepertoir

Q. How would Braum work against champions like Zilean or other AOE damage champions? Does he shield the carry from the damage or would it sill hurt them? Say Braum uses Stand Behind Me to get to his ally, then a Zilean bomb blows up on him. Would this damage both Braum and his ally?
"So the situation is that Braum has Unbreakable active and Zilean puts time bomb on him. Time bomb will still detonate and hurt allies near you. Braum will also take damage because the skill blew up on top of him, there is no directionality associated with the spell.
If time bomb explodes on one of Braum's allies and Braum points his shield towards the bomb he will reduce the damage.
The rule for this should be really intuitive, Braum reduces damage from nearly everything that is hitting him from the direction his shield is pointing. Target your shield at things that do damage and he will reduce the damage." - RiotWrekz

Q. In your opinion, not just as developers, but as players, which marksmen do you see benefitting the most from having Braum in the lane with them?
"Champions that can safely or quickly trigger his passive.
Lucian, Ezreal, Caitlyn, Jinx, and Quinn have been my favorites to play with so far." - RiotRepertoir

Q. Does Unbreakable go away after a certain amount of time or is it based off the amount of damage taken while it is active?
"It decays after its duration expires, it doesn't break from a certain amount of damage." - RiotWrekz

Q. How much is this champion like Leona? I've done my research and I know that Leona is supposed to be a hard to kill poke down champion with diving potential, but Braum seems kind of the same way without the stun and diving potential. 
"Whereas Leona focuses on diving into the enemy team, Braum tends to have more success staying back protecting one or two nearby allies of his choice. Basically, Leona is offense, Braum is defense." - RiotRepertoir

Q. I have 1 question about braum's unbreakable. Does it only interact with ranged attacks that hit him from that direction or do any attacks (mele) hit the shield and do reduced damage as well?
"All attacks that hit you from the direction your shield is facing deal reduce damage. This includes melee attacks as well as range, and abilities/spells from that direction." - RiotWrekz

Q. From what I'm seeing I just want to know if he's going to be even more overbearing in lane than Leona if I could even compare the two? Not to mention with majority of his skills focusing on one person is he like Zac trying to hit everyone for a stun type of guy or the focus and exterminate the squishys type of guy?
"He and Leona are a bit different in that Leona wants ~3 second engagements in which she and her ally burst down an enemy. Braum, on the other hand, tends to have longer engagement windows, so he's probably not quite as overbearing as Leona when ahead.
I'd say he's not really like Leona or Zac all that much. Both of these champions have a very aggressive pattern, but Braum's kit allows him to be much more effective while on the defense." - RiotRepertoir

Q. I am concerned about Braum's ability outside of the support role. Yes, he's mainly a support champion and I embrace and love that part about him, but other characters can step out of their "lane meta" and still be useful in other lanes. Will this NOT be the case with Braum? Or will he have a chance to work somewhere else other than the bot-support meta lane?
"It's very likely that there will be people that try and succeed in alternative lanes, but I wouldn't expect to see him in a solo lane or jungle in LCS or OGN because he's just so much better with allies." - RiotRepertoir
Q. I believe you said that one of his abilities blocks 100% of the damage from an ability but not the cc portion of it. In that case, let's say a Warwick ults me but I use that ability. Would it still allow me to be suppressed and locked in position but take zero damage from Warwick's ult?
"This, I can actually answer. Braum's ultimate blocks/reduces all damage from sources that attack the front of the shield. Taken from The League of Legends Wiki page on Braum; specifically, notes on his Unbreakable:
-The damage reduction will affect any source of damage whose origin is in front of the shield. This includes: -All intercepted projectiles. -Melee and non-projectile based ranged attacks.
As I highlighted above, if one were to melee Braum's shield, the damage would be blocked if it was the first attack on the shield or reduced in damage if it is not the first. So, I believe WW's ult deals damage based on where on the target he jumps to. If he blinks to the front of the Braum, then his damage would be reduced. If he jumps behind Braum, then full damage would be dealt. Now, I could be wrong, but based on the information given on Braum, I believe this is how it would work." - Gwyntorias
"Great post, thanks for explaining." - RiotWrekz

Q. If Braum's E intercepts a projectile that triggers another effect, is that effect still triggered? Example: Does empowered Karma Q still do AoE damage around him and give off a big explosive slow field?
"Karma Mantra-Q does still happen, it leaves the ground zone at the point where the projectile hit the shield." - RiotWrekz

Q. Since Braum's passive is a stun on every 4th hit would you suggest building attack speed/tank?
"I wouldn't recommend building attack speed. You will get more out of building additional defensive items and CDR and working with your team to stack up/proc Concussive Blows." - RiotWrekz

Q. How do tether abilities (e.g. Fiddlesticks' Drain, Mazahar's Nether Grasp, Karma's Focused Resolve) work with Braum's Unbreakable?
"Each time those abilities tick damage it will be reduce if the attacker (person on the other end of the tether) is in front of his shield. The tether does not change targets [i.e. is not intercepted by Braum] because it is not a projectile." - RiotWrekz

Q. Are you guys worried about Braum's ability to remain useful if the laning phase goes poorly? I know lots of times, I have found it difficult to play a tank type character when the enemy is ahead, usually because I'm not tanky enough to be alive long enough to tank well.
"I am not terribly worried about Braum's ability to remain effective when behind. A couple of caveats to this though. First, a champion should be less effective when behind, champions need to lose games because it is a multiplayer game and both sides need to be able to win. Second, and to address the core of the question, when Braum gets behind the primary thing that changes is his positioning. Playing from behind you need to be cognizant of the fact that getting in the middle of a fight and mixing it up makes you likely to die. We have seen Braum continue to be successful after a poor laning phase if he stays further in the back and focuses on protecting one target, getting passive stacks onto other people with Winter's Bite as opportunity presents itself. Also, Glacial Fissure if placed well has the power to be extremely impactful even when you are behind." - RiotWrekz

Q. How does unbreakable work with DoTs [damage over time]? Does it only block the first tick of damage and then reduce the rest?
"DoTs do not have their damage reduced. If the DoT is coupled with something directional that applies it (think Brand Q) then Braum will reduce the damage from the attack applying the DoT but not the DoT itself." - RiotWrekz

Q. Yasuo's Wind Wall blocks all ranged attacks, even from minions. Since Braum's Unbreakable loses a lot of potency after blocking a single attack, wouldn't this be laughably weak if he uses his E inside a minion wave or while being targeted by a caster minion? Or do minion shots simply not break the negation effect on his shield?
"Minion and monster attacks do not trigger the 100% damage mitigation on first hit effect. It felt highly variable and too random to produce good gameplay when that was the case. It was unreasonable to place positioning demands that strict on the champion (always away from minions, only cast E when no minion aggro) and the person playing against didn't have to make a comparatively good play in order to get the effect of the first-block being consumed in those cases.
TLDR: Only champions cause the first attack 100% mitigated." - RiotWrekz

Q. When is Braum being released? I skipped school today in hopes it was today :/
"Braum is not releasing today. Please stay in school!" - RiotWrekz

Q. Riot, pls. We have to know if there was -ANY- inspiration drawn from Angus the Puncher. We must know. It must come from your mouth. Riot, pls.
"The excitement and popularity of the Angus concept demonstrated that there was a desire for a manly support champion. We drew from this and many other sources as inspiration." - RiotWrekz

Q. I wanted to ask for some clarification on a few things, as RiotRepertoir mentioned abilities with no travel time are not blocked, while RiotWrekz said that Braum does, in fact, take reduced damage from them. So I have a few questions involving the interaction of Lux's ult and Braum's shield:
1. If Braum's Unbreakable allows abilities to apply their effects but not the damage according to RiotWrekz, why does RiotRepertoir say that it is not blocked?
2. If Braum CAN block the damage from Final Spark, that still means that the passive is popped and applied, correct?
3. As for one last question, will the Final Spark damage still apply to all targets behind Braum, assuming that Lux's ulti was the first thing to hit the wall?

"Hey! Happy to clear up the confusion.
1. Braum does not "block" Lux ult like he does with Ezreal where it hits him and doesn't hurt anyone behind him. Lux's ultimate will travel the full distance regardless of whether or not it hits unbreakable.
2. If Lux's ultimate hits Unbreakable then Braum will reduce the damage. This is because Braum will reduce the damage from everything that hits him from a direction, so even though Lux ult is not intercepted or destroyed like Braum does with projectiles, he is still able to block the damage portion.
3. Yes the passive is still applied/popped." - RiotWrekz

Q. Is there a cooldown on how long before his passive can be applied to an enemy again?
"Yes there is, it is 8/7/6 seconds at levels 1/7/13. CD goes down when Braum hits 7 and 13." - RiotWrekz

Q. I got a lot questions to ask about Braum:
1. How much percent does his E ability block (the subsequent attacks)?
2. For using his E ability does it block all effects but CC?
3. Does his Q ability grant him sight? (like Vel'Koz's E)
4. Will his E ability move wherever he is facing?
5. When will he be released?
6. Does his ultimate ability knock-up everyone that is hit?
7. Will enemies be seen with the passive sign on them?

"No problem with having a bunch of questions!
1. 30%->40% across rank ups
2. His E blocks damage, but does not stop stuns/CCs. Projectiles that would pass you instead hit you and stop. This means Taric Dazzle headed at someone else stuns Braum instead, Ezreal ultimate hits you and does not continue. This portion only applies to projectiles, Braum reduces damage from everything in the direction his shield is facing.
3. No, Q does not give vision.
4. His E (Unbreakable) maintains the direction you cast it and moves with him, Lucian is the other champion that uses this with his ultimate.
5. Soon!
6. Glacial Fissure (Braum Ultimate) knocks up the first champion it hits for 1.5 seconds and targets after that for 0.25 seconds.
7. No, the passive does not give vision." - RiotWrekz

Q. Braum makes comments about specific items in his voice over; were you at all concerned that these VOs for specific items might restrict item set creativity?
"We weren't particularly concerned about people limiting their item builds due to the presence of VO lines for other things. Creative players will continue being creative, we recorded VO for the set of items we felt would commonly get picked up, but I don't think it is likely that players will avoid items that do not have lines associated with them." - RiotWrekz

Q. I'm really looking forward to Braum so far, so I have a few questions about him:
1. This question isn't technically about Braum I suppose, but, Yasuo's windwall set-up this system for recognizing projectiles, and then Braum's shield deals with projectiles from a certain direction. Is it possible that in the future there could be a champion ability that deals with redirecting, or even reflecting, projectiles?
2. Braum's passive allows him to deal extra damage on his attacks while an enemy is on cooldown from his passive. To me this promotes the, 'Get a BotRK and then tank items', mentality that a lot of top laners have. Is that on purpose so as to allow him a bit of top lane viability should someone want to take him up there? Regardless of design, do you think that actually gives him some top lane viability?
3. Braum's slow on the Q starts at 70% and then decays over the next 2 seconds, which doesn't change as the skill is leveled. Why choose to have the slow function like that instead of a set percentage over the duration that would go up with the skill's level? Is it mostly just to make his disengage ability very good even at level 1?

"Good questions!
1. It is possible but very complicated to do that. I would say it is unlikely due to concerns about design satisfaction. Balancing a defensive action that stops attacks from happening is difficult, but do-able when a champion makes substantial tradeoffs in other areas. Taking an offensive action from an opponent, nullifying it, and turning it into an offensive action for yourself is extremely powerful and I don't believe would be satisfying enough for the person playing to outweigh the dissatisfaction playing against. This is just my analysis though.
2. The bonus damage on auto attacks once the passive is procced was not put there with the intent for him to be viable as a top laner. Its intent is to make him more successful in longer/brawlier fights because he has a moderate cooldown on Q and only has one damaging ability on his kit. Giving the passive a sustained damage component lets the Braum player feel like they have powerful auto attacks when helping fight jungle monsters or objectives (Baron/Dragon) and also makes him a bit more successful in extended fights during lane.
3. Having the Q being a decaying slow gives him a little bit more disengage power, and some more engage if allies are around to follow up, without making the slow crippling to play against." - RiotWrekz

Q. I have a question or two about Braum's "Unbreakable" and "Stand Behind Me":
1. Why doesn't "Unbreakable" intercept tower shots? I was really hoping to be able to use "Stand Behind Me" into "Unbreakable" to save a fleeing ally from that last tower shot that kills them even if it killed me instead. Even if it never reduced the damage from the tower and maybe even kept the bonus damage for shooting when intercepted it would still have been a fun addition.
2. Does Braum's "Stand Behind Me" take into account active champion ults when deciding were you land after the dash? For example I'm Braum and I dash to my ADC during the cast time for Cait's ultimate but their support is off to the side but closer to us. Would it put me near the enemy support and let my adc die, or would it position me to intercept Cait's ult?
"Hey! I'm glad you could participate in this one. These are really focused questions, thanks for taking the time to write them out.
1. Unbreakable not blocking tower shots is a game health choice and a decision we made about the ways Braum should express power. Tower diving is really strong, especially in competitive play. Towers should feel like safe zones for your enemies, that's what makes them an attractive objective to destroy. The more mechanics we add that let you drop/shift tower aggro or negate tower damage the less true that becomes and the more prevalent early diving gets. Consequently we should be using mechanics with a great deal of discretion. Finally, Braum should feel like the ultimate defender, and allowing him to block tower shots would have encouraged a great deal of diving aggressive play. We felt it would be inconsistent for a protector/defender champion to have such strong incentives to dive.
2. No, it is important for clarity reasons for the ability to have understandable rules regarding how it positions you. It will offset you towards the nearest enemy champion as long as they are visible. With good reactions we have found that players have a lot of success making clutch saves blocking Caitlyn's ultimate." - RiotWrekz

Art & Sound

Answers authored by The Bravo Ray,  JinHoYangRiotLamz, BelligerentSwan, and Griftrix.

Q. What were the inspirations behind Braum's look?
"Braum's look had many influences from different popular archetypes ranging from movies, games and anime.
We really wanted to hit the strong man, yet jovial thematic, while giving him a look that was unique to league." - The Bravo Ray

Q. Why did you not give him bagpipes of awesome? He's Scottish; I prayed that you would make his dance his pulling out a bagpipe (like Yasuo pulls out a flute), and just PLAYYY that BEAUTIFUL SOUND. DAT GOD GRACIOUS BEAUTIFUL BAGPIPE SOUND.
Please make a Skin in the Future (could be Octoberfest) where he pulls out a bagpipe and just plays it indefinitely. Have different tunes. HE'S SCOTTISH DAMMIT!
I see Braum and it brings back childhood memories of the Scotsman from Samurai Jack, playing his damn, beautiful bagpipes.... and kicking ass.

"LOL.. This is awesome idea~!!! :) sorry we didn't think about that earlier :P" - JinHoYang
"/:D this one is too good." - The Bravo Ray

Q. Is Braum the new support?
"Yes he is the new support, hope you guys like it :)" - JinHoYang

Q. How long did it take to go from designing him in idea and sketches to the finished product? Was he based on any community suggestions? :)
"Braum took a fair amount of time to get him where he needed to be thematically. He actually started off as a female support character.
As time went on, we always make time to listen to our players, we knew that we needed another male support.
So it was decided, to change gears and make the most manly support in league!
Of course this meant he had to have a mustache and muscles to spare." - The Bravo Ray

Q. Braum's VO is incredibly rich and expansive, a step up from anything we've seen yet, including legendary and ultimate skins. Can we expect to see this level of care and sheer amount of content for future champion releases and visual updates?
"Yes.. We will always try to add more contents and new stuffs for future champions. (Aniamtion, VFX, model and sound)" - JinHoYang
"I can try to shed some light on this, hopefully a sound guy can chime in too.
We wanted to explore Extended V.O on Braum, to ulitzlze more of his personality.
He became our first champion to plunge into see what was possible with item purchases, events, etc.
There is a lot of problems that can arise when adding new features such as sound extensions for V.O events. So we started slowly and continued to find new ways to explore for future content.
I think the team did a great job taking that first step to bringing a deeper overall experience to Braum." - The Bravo Ray

Q. Seeing his abilities, I just can't help but think of how awesome it would be if you guys made a skin based on Captain America!
"lol. Awesome skin idea~~ thx :)" - JinHoYang

Q. Is there a reason his unbreakable shield has a horn broken off of the ram?
"Yes I can see how that may be a little confusing.
It was designed that way for interest and to help break the silhouette of the shield from game height. It adds a nice story telling element that helps provide visual interest.
We also thought it gave a little story, how did it break off if was supposedly unbreakable?" - The Bravo Ray

Q. If Braum was to get another skin what direction would Riot's design team go with? Can you think of anything you know you want to see him come out with?
"I vote for wrestler Braum! just like hollywood Hogan but he would carry a half smashed table instead of shield :)" - RiotLamz
"Braum takes a lot of references from pro wrestling, look at his arm band, looks kinda familiar to the old days of pro wrestling.?" - The Bravo Ray

Q. One of my favorite authors is Nietzsche. Any chance we will see a skin based on one of the West's most influential philosophers? Was Braum's appearance in any way inspired by him?
"Man I thought this skin was well on its way already! Gentleman Braum fits his personality so well!" - Wolfys
"I am curious how he would look in a suit myself? (how would he fit?) but what to do with the make of his shield? Any thoughts? Either way I think it is a good idea!" - The Bravo Ray

Q. Does movement animation with the poro strolling on Braum's shield have any special condition to occur or is it random?
"The little easter egg that we had to remove, it ended up effecting gameplay and if Braum is ever used in the LCS this could be a serious distraction :( It was set to be random and only occurred like once every 1000 clicks." - RiotLamz

Q. Who was the artist that made that beautiful mustache?
"Many talented artists worked on Braum. and it is Brave Ray who did the awesome concept art, and it was Lee Strauss who made the beautiful model and texture of Braum in game. :)" - JinHoYang

Q. Here are a couple skin ideas for you... War of the Northern Front Braum, basically dressed up like a Cossack. Swedish Massage Braum, Yup...Braum in nothing but a towel, swinging a massage table around. Gentleman Braum, which I believe has already been mentioned. Strongman Braum, your classic carnival/circus favorite. How about a WWII themed fighter pilot entitled "Braums Away"? Have him use a wing tip or a bomb for a shield.
"lol. i am saving these ideas for later skin ideation meeting :)" - JinHoYang

Q. Is it true that The Bravo Ray was the model for Braum?
"LOL this is awesome.!!!" - JinHoYang
"Uhmmm... /:P
We took a lot inspirations from multiple sources to get the final look for the big guy." - The Bravo Ray
"This is 100% true." - Griftrix

Q. Will he have any special things with the poros?
"The joke animations have poros in them!" - RiotLamz

Q. Do Braum's tattoos symbolize something? Or are they battle scars of some sort?
"The band tattoos are there for visual interest. One goal of ours was to make sure he would fit in his faction thematically.
So we made the art to help tie him in together with the rest of the design language of the Freljord." - The Bravo Ray

Q. Why is Braum's moustache not fluffier and bigger?
"We actually tried animating his mustache in the early stages but it looked SUPER fluffy when you zoomed in, but from normal game view height it just wasn't really noticeable." - RiotLamz

Q. Will Braum have any interaction with Volibear?
"Braum doesn't have any interactions with Volibear, but he does have several taunt and shield block interactions with other Champions though..." - BelligerentSwan

Q. I can't count to the end of requests I've seen for a Strongarm Braum skin. Will riot deign to please this large portion of its players?
"Definitely, we will take that in consideration when we do ideation meeting about Braum skin :)" - JinHoYang

Q. What kinds of skins can we expect? Something along the lines of Bad Cop Braum to match the mustache?
"We haven't decided any of skin ideas, however we will definitely take you guy's ideas seriously." - JinHoYang

Q. I have a HUGE list of awesome skin ideas for Braum. What is the best way for me to get it to your team?
"The Art Feedback section of our forums. We have artists and members of the skins team frequently check this for ideas and feedback. :)" - JinHoYang

Q? As Braum likes poros, you can give him some kind of funny poro skins with abilities that shoot, hit and block with poros ;)
"That poro shield idea is so brutal, but funny.. lol" - JinHoYang

Q. Is there any chance to put a poro there ? :D
"Check his joke :)" - JinHoYang


Answers authored by Riot Opeli, Tommy GnoxRansomJaredan, and Riot Entropy.

Q. We all know Braum is bros with Ashe (Angus was too, after all) but what does he think of the other Freljord champions, especially allied rage-machine Tryndamere and the enemy's own tanky brawler Sejuani? Along the same lines, does he just sort of get along with everybody or is there anyone in particular outside the Freljord he dislikes?
"He's pretty good friends with Tryndamere, actually. He's essentially Tryndamere's foil and loves it because Tryn takes battle so seriously, whereas Braum finds it fun.
Braum wouldn't get along with anyone that is deliberately evil, though. He respects Sejuani but they don't see eye-to-eye regarding Freljord's future." - Riot Opeli

Q. Should we expect any special dialogue between certain champions?
"Yes! He has interactions with Tryndamere, Gragas, Annie, Alistar, and some others." - Riot Opeli

Q. Does Braum have any "love" interests?
"He loves his mom." - Riot Opeli
"This guy stole my question..." - Ransom

Q. Will Braum's mother ever be released as a champion? (Please make Milf champion)
"What about Elise and Zyra?" - Riot Entropy

Q. "Could Braum melt a Frozen Heart? And is it true that he’s shirtless in the Freljord because his warmth comes from the inside?" - Prof Fridays
"Yes and yes. These things are true." - Riot Opeli

Q. So taking this for real, he could heal Lissandra's heart?
"Only one way to find out, I guess." - Tommy Knox

Q. Was Braum in the creative process with poros in mind as a large part of his character? Or was he being worked on before poros were added to him? Also, great job on creating a brand new personality for a champ in a game with so many different personalities!
"Poros already existed when we started working on him, and we always knew he'd be kind to animals, so... It happened pretty naturally. They went hand-in-hand.
Thanks! Working on his personality has been one of my highlights at Riot." - Riot Opeli

Q. What inspired all the interactions with other champions? Also, since Braum interacts with certain expected items he purchases, will this become a feature for reworked and future champions as well?
"1) Opeli can elaborate on the specific champions Braum interacts with, but typically, the writing team pitches a bunch of voiceover lines for each champion, and the best get cherry-picked. So if a line makes it into the game, it's because it was one of the most amusing to the team.
2) The scope of champion voiceover has steadily been expanding - scripts are getting bigger, and there are more interactions with other champions (and now items). I'd say this trend will likely continue." - Ransom

Q. I'm curious, why was the decision made to go with a troll child specifically in Braum's lore? Is it to imply the troll is Trundle? Or to form some sort of connection between Braum and Trundle? Or some other reason entirely? Just seems like a curious emphasis was made on the child's species, especially considering my assumption was that the trolls were not well-liked by other Freljordians. Or was that itself the reason, to show that Braum is friends with everyone?
"Showing that Braum is friends with everyone was a large part of it; some people would have passed up the challenge knowing the child inside was a troll.
Also, trolls take up a very narrow space in our IP, so it was nice to include them a bit more, even if it's just one child." - Riot Opeli

Q. What inspired the Poro video? It's a stroke of genius b/c so many in the community love him already for having saved the poro from certain doom (<3<3<3). Along with a display of how he can block projectiles.
"Well, a) everybody loves poros and wants more poro-loving all the time. And b) one thing that Opeli identified as a character trait of Braum's was his love and care for all the creatures of Runeterra.
So it made sense to create a piece where we showcase poros, demonstrate Braum's character, and depict life and war in the Freljord all at the same time.
When it comes to a short piece like this, we want to pack in as much story and detail about the world as we can. It makes for a richer piece, and gives everyone a fuller sense of the world." - Ransom

Q. What made you decide that Braum's weapon would be a shield? Most other Freljordians all have very offensive weapons, so why break the mold with Braum?
"He's a protector at heart; hurting people with an offensive weapon isn't really his thing.
Also, we wanted to break the mold of the Freljord! Variety is nice." - Riot Opeli

Q. "Why isn't Braum also a chef?" - OH NO ITS LU BU
"I know who you are, and I know what you're up to. I'm watching you. Push your chef agenda elsewhere, chum.
Seriously though, Braum has spent a fair amount of time on farms - and I think they do a lot of cooking on farms, right? So I would imagine he's not bad in the kitchen." - Ransom
"I hear tell that Braum fries a mean egg... on his pecs." - Riot Entropy

Q. What is Braum's and Ashe's relationship like? <3
"Having heard tales of the brave feats of Braum, Ashe sought him out and asked him to join the Avarosan in the name of uniting the Freljord. You can imagine a lot of easy camaraderie between the two. Braum cheers her up when she's feeling blue, and bolsters her courage when she's fearful." - Ransom

Q. In Braum's character piece the grandmother telling his story claims that her own grandmother told her stories of Braum. Given the necessary generational gap this would place Braum as a very elderly figure, which is certainly not the case in-game! Is Braum significantly older than he seems (how mysterious!), or is this legend being told in the distant future after Braum's accomplishments have become merely folklore?
"You're uh.... You're asking the right questions.
:)" - Riot Opeli

Q. Does Braum actually use his shield? Or is it just for show, and his manly mustache is what truly blocks attacks?
"To quote Braum: 'Is it the mustache? Who knows?'" - Riot Opeli

Q. Was it a concern that Draven's 'stache now pales in comparison to Braum's?
"Uh, kind of. When designing Braum, we were like, 'Draven is going to be so pissed.'" - Riot Opeli

Q. Will Braum ever get an Alex Armstrong from Full Metal Alchemist-related skin?
"Do you want us to get sued?" - Riot Opeli

Q. What would Braum do for a Klondike bar?
"Klondike bars exist because Braum once wanted one and the resultant Yukon-PUNCH has provided us the bounty we have today. Be thankful." - Riot Entropy

Q. I'm one of two hosts for a small show called The Silver Lining that functions as a radio talkshow dedicated to discussing League as a game, and we've recently been rather excited about Braum. We'd love to add to the discussion!
Recently on the show, we brought up the thought that we feel like Braum is the first "Legend" to be introduced to the League of Legends in a while. His lore specifically describes him as a legend of the Freljord, everyone knows him, and he has so much personality compared to many champions in the League that he really feels like, well, a legend!
So my questions to you guys: What does it take to make a character's personality feel "legendary?" Do you feel there is some facet to his personality and/or character design that separates him from other recent releases on the Rift which might explain why he seems this way? For the future, what have you taken anything from designing Braum that you feel might let you make future champions have more distinct personalities?

"Braum's personality is so over-the-top - that's where the "legendary" feeling comes from. He's larger than life just by being him... It's hard to imagine a human that strong and unafraid of anything. His deeds (and how we portray them) also make Braum feel like a legend. From helping the smallest animal to caving in a vault to who knows what, his stories have spread across the land.
It does get hard making distinct personalities amongst the many champions we have already, but personalities that are turned up to 11 are super memorable. You understand Jinx just by looking at her. Listening to Braum's voice for two seconds let's you "get" him. Stuff like that.
We won't always be able to do over-the-top stuff (that'll get tiring for everyone), but we want to offer personalities that resonate with our players!" - Riot Opeli

Q. What are the origins of Braum's shield? Is it just a regular Freljord great shield that Braum himself makes awesome? or is it more of a magical artifact that has its own interesting story?
"It used to be a vault door! You can read about how he obtained it in his bio. :)" - Riot Opeli

Q. What does Braum think about Lissandra? He doesn't seem to be the type of guy who would dislike someone...
"He'd probably figure he could invite her to share a glass of goat milk and work through their differences. That's the kind of guy he is. But if she simply refused... he'd fight her if he had to. But the goat milk offer would always be open. ;-)" - Tommy Gnox

Q. Does Braum even lift? Rather, does he even need to?
"He keeps in shape by lifting sheep and punching his way through mountains." - Tommy Gnox
"It's not how much you can lift. It's how good you look!" - Ransom

Q. How much does this Braum guy weigh?
"More than a breadbox; less than Baron." - Tommy Gnox

Q. How did he become so strong and what were his influences in becoming so?
"Goat milk, shepherd work, and clean living." - Tommy Gnox

Q. Can we be real here? His name was just chosen because you needed another 'B' name. Right now it's just Blitzcrank and Brand. (I'm on to you.)
"Actually I worried about his name being so close to "Brand." And we went back and forth for a long time about what his name should be; we went through many iterations before settling on the Braum we now all know and love." - Tommy Gnox

Q. Is Braum an Avarosan, or just a mass of muscle and 'stache that wanders the Freljord?
"He chooses to join Ashe because he relates to her values." - Tommy Gnox

Q. What is Braum's last name?
"Like Prince and Madonna, he needs only one." - Tommy Gnox

Q. Do you plan on doing more videos such as the Trials of the Poro for future champs?
"Absolutely. Expect to see more of these in the future." - Tommy Gnox

Q. So this is something that I've been curious about since I first saw his joyful and warm personality. How did Braum develop such a happy go lucky(I believe that term fits) personality in a place as harsh as the Freljord? I mean, wouldn't he of grown jaded from the wars and fighting? Was he somehow influenced to become the warm-hearted hero that he is?
"Some people are born with a smile on their faces. Braum is one such person. (Also, it's easy not to have a care in the world when you're built like that guy.)" - Tommy Gnox

Q. It seems like there's been an increase in the care and effort that's been going into champion lore accompanying their releases lately, and it makes me wonder, is any of this indicative of plans to reboot any of the other ways in which we were told the lore of Runeterra?
"Great question. We can't answer too specifically yet, but keep your eyes open for communications on upcoming narrative/lore developments and directions. And yes, we're certainly putting a ton of care into both the champs and their accompanying lore pieces (always have, but a slightly slower cadence and more collaborators hopefully results in even more awesome)." - Tommy Gnox

Q. Did you draw any inspiration for his personality or voice at all from Otto off of Malcolm in the Middle?
"Can't say I recall that being bandied about as a reference. Opeli may remember better than I, though." - Tommy Gnox

Q. To pay homage to Angus, a lumberjack-themed Braum skin should be created. His shield would just be a massive tree trunk.
"Truth: this idea has been discussed. Although mostly facetiously. But stranger things have happened..." - Tommy Gnox

Q. Does Braum have a girlfriend?
"Not currently. Nor a boyfriend, for that matter. He's available, and a great catch, as long as you like spartan mountain living and goat's milk." - Tommy Gnox

Q. How does Olaf feel about Braum? I mean, Braum's belt buckle clearly has more girth than Olaf's.
"They're drinking buddies. Although Braum doesn't drink alcohol, so he goes with goat's milk, while Gragas opts for sterner stuff." - Tommy Gnox

Q. Would Braum get along with Jinx seeing how she is crazy and gets most of her fun by blowing stuff up and killing innocents?
"Not particularly, one expects." - Tommy Gnox

Q. Does everyone in Freljord love Braum, since he's the heart of Freljord and he just seems like a nice person?
"Possibly not everyone, but if you can't like Braum, you probably can't like anybody." - Tommy Gnox

Q. What do you think is the biggest thing people will love about Braum and his abilities?
"Gotta be the mustache." - Tommy Gnox

Q. In Braum's lore it states his shield did not have a single scratch on it. Why in his classic splash is a part of the horn on the right side missing? Was the door already like this or did something else cause it to break off?
"It seems reasonable to assume it was pristine when he got it and the horn got broken later. Hey, we have to keep something back to tell stories about later, don't we?" - Tommy Gnox

Q. I heard he has a thousand Poros in his house and he flies over the skies once a year delivering moustaches to young children, is this true?
"Almost, it's actually twice a year (people need cheering up after the Harrowing, after all)." - Jaredan

Q. Do you think Braum and Yasuo would get along? Their kits look like they'd mesh really well with each other, and Braum seems like the type of guy who would support Yasuo's search for justice. Given Yasuo's still a bit of a blood knight, I keep seeing them as bash brothers on the field, hanging out talking over drinks off the field. They'd probably argue about alcohol vs milk though XD
"Yeah, they would definitely get along. Braum would admire Yasuo's perseverance and Yasuo would like Braum's attitude." - Riot Opeli

Q. OK, so I always love how very few champions are pure evil. Like in the real world, people aren't ever evil for evil sake, everyone has reasons. This being said, I hate that the opposite is NEVER true - nearly ALL of your good alignment champions are just that! They are goodie goodies! For instance, I can't think of a single champion from Demacia that has done something they are ashamed of. SO is there a possibility of Braum having some more depth in that aspect? Because right about now he is looking pretty... perfect >.>
"Not speaking of Braum specifically, but one of the goals we have for League's stories moving forward is to continue to add more depth, richness and complexity to the characters and the challenges they face. We have to remain vague at the moment about how we want to deliver these stories, but we want to ensure our champions are as nuanced as the people talking about them." - Jaredan

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